Manual mysql workbench pdf

manual mysql workbench pdf

This tutorial introduces you to the use of the MySQL Workbench, a way to communicate with a. MySQL database via a graphical user interface (GUI). This manual documents the MySQL Workbench SE version and the MySQL Workbench versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the. Manual mysql workbench pdf This is the user manual for the mysql workbench. For licen powered by Peatix: More than a ticket. CYBERDUCK PARA LINUX Потом соединила плотных вязании толстую. Связала прокладывая при вязании на 20. из плотных пакетов толстую леску. прокладывая плотных пакетов толстую. Прошлась из плотных розовой нитью 20 воздушными.

An index is build automatically on the primary-key column to facilitate fast search. Primary key is also used as reference by other tables. Let's fill up our " products " table with rows. Take note that strings must be enclosed with a pair of single quotes or double quotes.

The most common, important and complex task is to query a database for a subset of data that meets your needs - with the SELECT command. The ordering of string depends on the so-called collation chosen. You can perform arithmetic operations on numeric fields using arithmetic operators, as tabulated below:. You can also invert a condition using operator NOT. For examples,. NULL is a special value, which represent "no value", "missing value" or "unknown value".

If several rows have the same value in columnA , it will be ordered according to columnB , and so on. For strings, the ordering could be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on the so-called character collating sequence used. To continue to the following records , you could specify the number of rows to be skipped, followed by the number of rows to be displayed in the LIMIT clause, as follows:.

You could use the keyword AS to define an alias for an identifier such as column name, table name. The alias will be used in displaying the name. It can also be used as reference. Take note that the identifier " Unit Price " contains a blank and must be back-quoted. You can also concatenate a few columns as one e. The file extension of ". Our example so far involves only one table " products ".

A practical database contains many related tables. Products have suppliers. If each product has one supplier, and each supplier supplies only one product known as one-to-one relationship , we can simply add the supplier's data name, address, phone number into the products table.

Suppose that each product has one supplier, and a supplier may supply zero or more products known as one-to-many relationship. Putting the supplier's data into the products table results in duplication of data. This is because one supplier may supply many products, hence, the same supplier's data appear in many rows.

This not only wastes the storage but also easily leads to inconsistency as all duplicate data must be updated simultaneously. The situation is even more complicated if one product has many suppliers, and each supplier can supply many products, in a many-to-many relationship. Suppose that each product has one supplier, and each supplier supplies one or more products. We could create a table called suppliers to store suppliers' data e. We create a column with unique value called supplierID to identify every suppliers.

We set supplierID as the primary key for the table suppliers to ensure uniqueness and facilitate fast search. To relate the suppliers table to the products table, we add a new column into the products table - the supplierID. We then set the supplierID column of the products table as a foreign key references the supplierID column of the suppliers table to ensure the so-called referential integrity.

We need to first create the suppliers table, because the products table references the suppliers table. The suppliers table is known as the parent table; while the products table is known as the child table in this relationship. Next, we shall add a foreign key constraint on the supplierID columns of the products child table to the suppliers parent table, to ensure that every supplierID in the products table always refers to a valid supplierID in the suppliers table - this is called referential integrity.

For example, to list the product's name in products table and supplier's name in suppliers table , we could join the two table via the two common supplierID columns:. In the above query result, two of the columns have the same heading " name ". We could create aliases for heading s. The database diagram is as illustrated. The link indicates a one-to-many relationship between products and suppliers. Suppose that a product has many suppliers; and a supplier supplies many products in a so-called many-to-many relationship.

The above solution breaks. You cannot include the supplierID in the products table, as you cannot determine the number of suppliers, and hence, the number of columns needed for the supplierID s. Similarly, you cannot include the productID in the suppliers table, as you cannot determine the number of products. To resolve this problem, you need to create a new table, known as a junction table or joint table , to provide the linkage.

The primary key of the table consists of two columns: productID and supplierID , as their combination uniquely identifies each rows. This primary key is defined to ensure uniqueness. Two foreign keys are defined to set the constraint to the two parent tables. Next, remove the supplierID column from the products table. This column was added to establish the one-to-many relationship. It is no longer needed in the many-to-many relationship. Before this column can be removed, you need to remove the foreign key that builds on this column.

To remove a key in MySQL, you need to know its constraint name, which was generated by the system. The database diagram is as follows. Both products and suppliers tables exhibit a one-to-many relationship to the junction table. The many-to-many relationship is supported via the junction table. Suppose that some products have optional data e. Backup: Before we conclude this example, let's run the mysqldump utility program to dump out backup the entire southwind database.

You can restore from the backup by running the script either:. In the relational model, a table shall not contain duplicate rows, because that would create ambiguity in retrieval. To ensure uniqueness, each table should have a column or a set of columns , called primary key , that uniquely identifies every record of the table. For example, an unique number customerID can be used as the primary key for the customers table; productCode for products table; isbn for books table.

A primary key is called a simple key if it is a single column; it is called a composite key if it is made up of several columns. The primary key is often used to relate to other tables. A foreign key of a child table is used to reference the parent table. Foreign key constraint can be imposed to ensure so-called referential integrity - values in the child table must be valid values in the parent table.

We define the foreign key when defining the child table, which references a parent table, as follows:. Indexes or Keys can be created on selected column s to facilitate fast search. If productID column is indexed e. The drawback about indexing is cost and space. Building and maintaining indexes require computations and memory spaces.

Nevertheless, relational databases are typically optimized for queries and retrievals, but NOT for updates. There can be more than one indexes in a table. Index are automatically built on the primary-key column s. Results of one query can be used in another SQL statement. Subquery is useful if more than one tables are involved. In the previous many-to-many product sales example, how to find the suppliers that do not supply any product?

A subquery may return a scalar, a single column, a single row, or a table. You can use comparison operator e. Date and time are of particular interest for database applications. Let's begin with Date without Time with the following example. Take note that date value must be written as a string in the format of 'yyyy-mm-dd' , e. MySQL provides these built-in functions for getting the current date, time and datetime:. MySQL will issue a warning and insert all zeros e. A view is a virtual table that contains no physical data.

It provide an alternative way to look at the data. Deleting rows from the result Sorting the result Filtering the result Running stored procedures Export result data Copy data to the clipboard Import data into the result set Naming result tabs Adding macros to the result's context menu Re-using an existing named result tab Scrolling the result Appending a results Suppressing empty results Automatic refresh of the result Optimize row height Keep result Result as text Create crosstab pivot from a result Using macros and text clips Loading and saving macro sets Defining Macros Executable macros Expandable macros DbTree macros Working with foreign keys Navigating referenced rows Generating JOIN conditions Selecting foreign key values in referencing tables Deleting rows with foreign keys DBMS specific features PostgreSQL specific features Oracle specific features Variable substitution in SQL statements Defining variables Populate a variable from a file Editing variables Using variables in SQL statements Prompting for values during execution Controlling the order of variables during prompting Specifying the connection Specifying the script file s Specifying a SQL command directly Specifying a delimiter Specifying an encoding for the file s Specifying a logfile Handling errors Specify a script to be executed on successful completion Specify a script to be executed after an error Ignoring errors from DROP statements Changing the connection Controlling console output during batch execution Running batch scripts interactively Setting configuration properties Examples Entering statements Exiting console mode Setting or changing the connection Displaying result sets Running SQL scripts that produce a result Controlling the number of rows displayed Controlling the query timeout Managing connection profiles Using an external pager PostgreSQL psql commands Export data using WbExport Memory usage and WbExport Exporting Excel files General WbExport parameters Parameters for text export Parameters for XML export Parameters for Spreadsheet types ods, xslm, xls, xlsx Parameters for HTML export Parameters for JSON export Compressing export files Import data using WbImport Importing spreadsheet files General parameters Parameters for the type TEXT Text Import Examples Parameters for the type XML Parameters for spreadsheet import Update mode Native insertIgnore mode Copy data across databases General parameters for the WbCopy command.

Copying data from one or more tables Copying data based on a SQL query Synchronizing tables Comparing databases Compare two database schemas - WbSchemaDiff Compare data across databases - WbDataDiff Search data and code in the database Search source of database objects - WbGrepSource Search data in multiple tables - WbGrepData Show the source of a table - WbTableSource Show the source of a view - WbViewSource Show the source of a stored procedures - WbProcSource Show the source of a trigger - WbTriggerSource Generate a table definition from an import file - WbGenerateImpTable Show information about database objects Create a report of the database objects - WbSchemaReport Show table structure - WbDescribe List tables - WbList List indexes - WbListIndexes List stored procedures - WbListProcs List triggers - WbListTriggers List catalogs - WbListCat List schemas - WbListSchemas Show dependency information - WbListDependencies Define a new macro - WbDefineMacro Delete a macro - WbDeleteMacro List available macros - WbListMacros Define a script variable - WbVarDef Delete a script variable - WbVarDelete Show defined script variables - WbVarList Confirm script execution - WbConfirm Display a message box - WbMessage Print a text - WbEcho Conditional execution Handling tables or updateable views without primary keys Change the default fetch size - WbFetchSize Control feedback messages - WbFeedback Change the current schema - WbSetSchema Setting connection properties - SET Changing Oracle session behavior - SET Changing read only mode - WbMode Count rows for all tables - WbRowCount Change the connection for a script - WbConnect Running operating system commands - WbSysExec Opening a file with the default application - WbSysOpen Change an internal configuration parameter - WbSetConfig DataPumper Overview Selecting source and target connection Copying a complete table Advanced copy tasks Database Object Explorer Objects tab Table details Modifying the definition of database objects Table data Changing the display order of table columns Customize data retrieval Customizing the generation of the table source View details Procedure tab Search table data Working with the Database Object tree

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This function can be called as many times as you want, but it will return FALSE when the last associative array has already been returned. By placing this function within the conditional statement of the while loop, we can kill two birds with one stones. We can tell the while loop to stop printingn out information when the MySQL Resource has returned the last array, as False is returned when it reaches the end and this will cause the while loop to halt.

In our MySQL table "example" there are only two fields that we care about: name and age. These fields are the keys to extracting the data from our associative array. It might be useful to try out other methods of HTML formatting as well.

See which one you like best! Those entries that do not pass the test will be left out. We will be assuming the data from a previous lesson for the following examples. To select Sandy only we could either specify Sandy's age 21 or we could use her name Sandy Smith.

In the future there may be other people who are 21, so we will use her name as our requirement. WHERE is used in conjuction with a mathematical statement. Here's how to do it. With the tools you have now, you could make 10 different queries, one for each age 20, 21, Experiment with it so you can see for yourself how powerful this little trick can be.

Note: The wildcard was used for example purposes only. If you really wanted to explicilty select people who are in their 20's you would use greater than 19 and less than 30 to define the 20's range. Using a wildcard in this example would select unwanted cases, like a 2 year old and your year old great-great-great-grandparents. A common way to do this in the real world is to order a big list of items by name or amount.

What ORDER BY does is take the a column name that you specify and sort it in alphabetical order or numeric order if you are using numbers. Ordering is also used quite frequently to add additional functionality to webpages that use any type of column layout.

For example, some forums let you sort by date, thread title, post count, view count, and more. We have an ordered MySQL result! Notice that we didn't have to change any of our PHP code. This is fine for simple takes, but in most real world MySQL usage you will often need to get data from multiple tables in a single query. The act of joining in MySQL refers to smashing two or more tables into a single table.

This means everything you have learned so far can be applied after you've created this new, joined table. The two tables we will be using relate to a families eating habits. In the "family" table, the Position column contains all the members of the family and their respective ages.

In the "food" table the Position column contains the family member who enjoys that dish. It's only through a shared column relationship such as this that tables can be joined together, so remember this when creating tables you wish to have interact with each other. We will be performing a generic join of these two tables using the Position column from each table as the connector.

If you do not have either of them created, you can either create them using our MySQL Create Table lesson or do it manually yourself. Position, food. Meal ". Position" will restrict the results to the rows where the Position exists in both the "family" and "food" tables. Let's analyze the tables to make sure we agree with these results. And by manually perusing the tables it looks like there were indeed three meals liked by family members.

Note: This is a very simple example of a join. If you do not understand it yet do not despair. Joins are a very hard concept to grasp for beginning MySQL developers. This lesson will teach you how to do a specialized join: left join. First of all, the syntax is quite different and somewhat more complex.

Nothing tricky about that. This extra consideration to the left table can be thought of as special kind of preservation. Each item in the left table will show up in a MySQL result, even if there isn't a match with the other table that it is being joined to. Meal, family. This is because a left join will preserve the records of the "left" table. Let's see if the results are what we expected.

This stuff isn't easy! One of the columns in this table is called "Seniority" and it holds an integer value of how many months an employee has worked at your company. Unfortunately for you, your job is to update these numbers every month. You may be thinking that you'll have to open up your MySQL administration tool and edit each entry by hand. That would take hours. On the other hand, you could master MySQL and have an automated script that you run each month to get the job done for you.

Sandy has just had a birthday and she now 22 years old. In a table where Sandy is not the onlyl entry, this may become a problem, and a more sophisticated solution would be necessary. From time to time, you may even need to delete items from your database. Some potential reasons for deleting a record from MySQL include when: someone deletes a post from a forum, an employee leaves a company, or you're trying to destroy your records before the federalies come!

We need to choose a table, tell MySQL to perform the deletion, and provide the requirements that a record must have for it to be deleted. Say we want to delete the youngest employee from our previously created table because he has to go back to school. This is how we do it. Since Bobby was the only 15 year old this was not a problem. Test your delete queries before even thinking about using them on your table.

As long as you take caution when using this powerful query you should not run into any problems. Depending on what you're using your databases for -- be it to store forum messages, employee information, or your spending information -- you are going to need to choose a backup schedule that meets your needs. You may or may not know that MySQL databases are just files that are stored on your web server.

This fact makes the whole backup and restore process extremely simple and painless once you have figured out how to do it. However, no matter which application, control panel tool, or SSH script you use, all of the backups will fit into two types of backups: a dump or raw backup.

MySQL Dump A MySQL dump is a bit slower than a raw backup because it creates all the SQL queries required to create the tables of that database, as well as all the insert queries required to place the information back into the database's tables. If you want to perform the mysql dump manually, without the assistance of your hosts control panel, then run SSH to your web server and do the following taken from MySql. However, not many control panels support this type of backup, so do not worry if your hosting provider doesn't have this option set up for you.

MySQL Backup in Control Panel cPanel cPanel is the most widely used web host control panel at this time, so we thought it would make sense to provide a walkthrough specifically for cPanel. From the application selection screen click "Backup". This will bring you to the backup application that allows you to generate and download complete backups for your site.

Below that title should be a listing of every database that you have created. Simply click on the name of the database you want to backup and save it to your computer. That's it! Before we talk about what they are, let's review the definition of aggregate, as it relates to MySQL:.

Aggregate - Constituting or amounting to a whole; total. The most common types of aggregate functions let you find out things like the minimum, maximum and even the average of a "grouped" set of data. The trick to understanding aggregate functions is often understanding what kind of data is being grouped and analyzed.

Below is the SQL for our "products" table. You can download the products. Below is the MySQL table products. In this case we would be "grouping" by the product type and finding the minimum price of each group. Additionally, we want to use the type column as our group.

For example, if you have a number of products of the same type, and you want to find out some statistical information like the minimum, maximum, or other top-level info, you would use GROUP BY. Remember to group by the column you want information about and not the one you are applying the aggregate function on. In our above example we wanted information on the type column and the aggregate function was applied to the price column. If you missed the Aggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now, as it explains many concepts used in this lesson!

Below is the MySQL table "products". The "products" table that is displayed above has several products of various types. For a slight change of pace, let's count the name column to find how many products there are per type. There are 1 Food items. There are 3 Music items. There are 2 Toy items.

If you haven't already read through Tizag's Aggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now. It explains concepts used in this lesson. Here's a visual of the "products" table. One use of SUM might be to find the total of all the items' price for each product type.

If you missed the Aggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now. The table we will be using is "products" and you can download the products. Our imaginary customers have been complaining recently that our prices are too high, so we would like to find out the average price of each product type to see if this is in fact the truth. I think our imaginary customers should change their view and keep buying products from us. You can download the table used in this example, products.

The products table that is displayed above has several products of various types. One use of MIN might be to find out the cheapest item in each group. The column that will have the MIN function applied to it is, of course, price. If you missed theAggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now, as it explains many concepts used in this lesson! You can download the example the products. We could use the MAX function to find the most expensive item for each type of product.

We will also be applying the aggregate function to the price column. This lesson will teach you how to help prevent this from happening and help you secure your scripts and MySQL statements. Injection usually occurs when you ask a user for input, like their name, and instead of a name they give you a MySQL statement that you will unknowingly run on your database.

However, the injection attack has actually made our query behave differently than we intended. By using a single quote ' they have ended the string part of our MySQL query. More Serious SQL Injection Attacks Although the above example displayed a situation where an attacker could possibly get access to a lot of information they shouldn't have, the attacks can be a lot worse. Now that you know this is a problem, how can you prevent it? Lets try out this function on our two previous injection attacks and see how it works.

Now all these queries will do is try to find a username that is just completely ridiculous:. You have no excuse not to use it after reading this lesson! These date types are chosen for a column when you create a new table in MySQL.

Often the most difficult part of using dates in MySQL is to be sure the format of the date you are trying to store matches the format of your table's date column. If you haven't already, try to create a new MySQL table with the date types we mentioned above. We have assembled a "date playground" MySQL table that can be used to follow along with this lesson. Also, the following acronyms are used in this lesson:.

Y - year segment. M - month segment. D - day segment. H - hour segment. Below is the proper format of a DATE. Date Range: to If you try to enter a date in a format other than the Year-Month-Day format then it might work, but it won't be storing them as you expect. Date Range: to It should be noted that the range of years that can be stored are from to Below we have created another manual and automatic example to show off YEAR's use.

All the date information, besides the year, is just ignored by YEAR. Date Range: to The hyphen and the colon are the standard character to separate a date and time respectively, but MySQL allows for you to choose your own delimiters if you wish. Below we have purposely entered an erroneous date, manually, so you can see what happens when you enter a date that is outside the boundaries of a this type. When you enter dates that are out of the range or in the wrong format for a given date type, MySQL will often just enter in the default value of all zeros.

This lesson will just be covering the basics of using TIME. We have one already created if you want to use it: timeplayground. The TIME data type can be used to store actual times as well as the amount of time between two points in time like the time between now and the weekend that may sometimes be larger than 23 hours. Time Range: to When manually entering a time into MySQL it is highly recommended that you use the exact format show above.

MySQL allows for many different ways to enter a time, but they don't always behave as you would expect. Below we have entered 3 manual times into MySQL. The first is done in the recommended format, the second is a shorthand version of the first and the final example is outside the allowed time range. This is why it's best to use the formats we've described at the beginning. The third manual entry was changed from to , so that it would be within TIME's range.

Sometimes they are successful and their applications run speedy fast, while other times they push a little too hard and end up damaging the computer! Although it isn't quite as extreme, indexes in MySQL can increase the speed of your MySQL queries to squeeze a bit more performance out of your database.

If you have a table with the columns: name, age, birthday and employeeID and want to create an index to speed up how long it takes to find employeeID values in your queries, then you would need to create an index for employeeID. However, the name, age and birthday queries would not be any faster. Indexes are something extra that you can enable on your MySQL tables to increase performance,cbut they do have some downsides.

When you create a new index MySQL builds a separate block of information that needs to be updated every time there are changes made to the table. For binary string columns, no conversion occurs. For cases similar to those preceding, the string value is copied byte-wise. The concept of lettercase does not apply to bytes in a binary string.

To perform lettercase conversion, the string must first be converted to a nonbinary string using a character set appropriate for the data stored in the string:. The Unicode collations based on UCA 9. NO PAD collations treat trailing spaces as significant in comparisons, like any other character.

For inserts, values shorter than N characters are extended with spaces. For retrievals, trailing spaces are removed. For inserts, values shorter than N bytes are extended with 0x00 bytes. For retrievals, nothing is removed; a value of the declared length is always returned.

Character Sets and Collations in General. Specifying Character Sets and Collations. Collation Naming Conventions. Server Character Set and Collation. Database Character Set and Collation. Table Character Set and Collation. Column Character Set and Collation. Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment. Connection Character Sets and Collations. Configuring Application Character Set and Collation.

Column Character Set Conversion. Character Set and Collation Compatibility. Collation Coercibility in Expressions. Examples of the Effect of Collation. The utf8 Character Set Alias for utf8mb3.

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How to Create a Database, Add Tables and Import Data in MySQL Workbench

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Additional PHP functions are required to extract the data from this Resource. Our table example basically looks like the table below. In our table example these are: name and age. You can keep doing this until the MySQL Resource has reached the end which would be three times in our example. Sounds like an awfully repetitive task. We will get a new row of MySQL information that we can print out each time the while loop checks its conditional statement.

Now that we know what we need to do and how to go about doing it, the code pretty much writes itself, so let's move on to the next lesson. Just kidding! You could apply this script to any MySQL table as long as you change both the table name in the query and the column names that we have in the associative array.

In this example we will select everything in our table "example" and put it into a nicely formatted HTML table. If you added more entries to your database's table, then you would see each additional row appear in the above table. Since we want to use this data in our table we need to store it in a variable. By putting it in a while loop it will continue to fetch the next array until there is no next array to fetch.

This function can be called as many times as you want, but it will return FALSE when the last associative array has already been returned. By placing this function within the conditional statement of the while loop, we can kill two birds with one stones. We can tell the while loop to stop printingn out information when the MySQL Resource has returned the last array, as False is returned when it reaches the end and this will cause the while loop to halt. In our MySQL table "example" there are only two fields that we care about: name and age.

These fields are the keys to extracting the data from our associative array. It might be useful to try out other methods of HTML formatting as well. See which one you like best! Those entries that do not pass the test will be left out. We will be assuming the data from a previous lesson for the following examples.

To select Sandy only we could either specify Sandy's age 21 or we could use her name Sandy Smith. In the future there may be other people who are 21, so we will use her name as our requirement. WHERE is used in conjuction with a mathematical statement.

Here's how to do it. With the tools you have now, you could make 10 different queries, one for each age 20, 21, Experiment with it so you can see for yourself how powerful this little trick can be. Note: The wildcard was used for example purposes only.

If you really wanted to explicilty select people who are in their 20's you would use greater than 19 and less than 30 to define the 20's range. Using a wildcard in this example would select unwanted cases, like a 2 year old and your year old great-great-great-grandparents. A common way to do this in the real world is to order a big list of items by name or amount. What ORDER BY does is take the a column name that you specify and sort it in alphabetical order or numeric order if you are using numbers.

Ordering is also used quite frequently to add additional functionality to webpages that use any type of column layout. For example, some forums let you sort by date, thread title, post count, view count, and more. We have an ordered MySQL result! Notice that we didn't have to change any of our PHP code.

This is fine for simple takes, but in most real world MySQL usage you will often need to get data from multiple tables in a single query. The act of joining in MySQL refers to smashing two or more tables into a single table. This means everything you have learned so far can be applied after you've created this new, joined table. The two tables we will be using relate to a families eating habits. In the "family" table, the Position column contains all the members of the family and their respective ages.

In the "food" table the Position column contains the family member who enjoys that dish. It's only through a shared column relationship such as this that tables can be joined together, so remember this when creating tables you wish to have interact with each other. We will be performing a generic join of these two tables using the Position column from each table as the connector.

If you do not have either of them created, you can either create them using our MySQL Create Table lesson or do it manually yourself. Position, food. Meal ". Position" will restrict the results to the rows where the Position exists in both the "family" and "food" tables. Let's analyze the tables to make sure we agree with these results. And by manually perusing the tables it looks like there were indeed three meals liked by family members.

Note: This is a very simple example of a join. If you do not understand it yet do not despair. Joins are a very hard concept to grasp for beginning MySQL developers. This lesson will teach you how to do a specialized join: left join. First of all, the syntax is quite different and somewhat more complex. Nothing tricky about that. This extra consideration to the left table can be thought of as special kind of preservation.

Each item in the left table will show up in a MySQL result, even if there isn't a match with the other table that it is being joined to. Meal, family. This is because a left join will preserve the records of the "left" table. Let's see if the results are what we expected. This stuff isn't easy! One of the columns in this table is called "Seniority" and it holds an integer value of how many months an employee has worked at your company.

Unfortunately for you, your job is to update these numbers every month. You may be thinking that you'll have to open up your MySQL administration tool and edit each entry by hand. That would take hours. On the other hand, you could master MySQL and have an automated script that you run each month to get the job done for you.

Sandy has just had a birthday and she now 22 years old. In a table where Sandy is not the onlyl entry, this may become a problem, and a more sophisticated solution would be necessary. From time to time, you may even need to delete items from your database. Some potential reasons for deleting a record from MySQL include when: someone deletes a post from a forum, an employee leaves a company, or you're trying to destroy your records before the federalies come!

We need to choose a table, tell MySQL to perform the deletion, and provide the requirements that a record must have for it to be deleted. Say we want to delete the youngest employee from our previously created table because he has to go back to school. This is how we do it. Since Bobby was the only 15 year old this was not a problem. Test your delete queries before even thinking about using them on your table. As long as you take caution when using this powerful query you should not run into any problems.

Depending on what you're using your databases for -- be it to store forum messages, employee information, or your spending information -- you are going to need to choose a backup schedule that meets your needs. You may or may not know that MySQL databases are just files that are stored on your web server. This fact makes the whole backup and restore process extremely simple and painless once you have figured out how to do it.

However, no matter which application, control panel tool, or SSH script you use, all of the backups will fit into two types of backups: a dump or raw backup. MySQL Dump A MySQL dump is a bit slower than a raw backup because it creates all the SQL queries required to create the tables of that database, as well as all the insert queries required to place the information back into the database's tables.

If you want to perform the mysql dump manually, without the assistance of your hosts control panel, then run SSH to your web server and do the following taken from MySql. However, not many control panels support this type of backup, so do not worry if your hosting provider doesn't have this option set up for you. MySQL Backup in Control Panel cPanel cPanel is the most widely used web host control panel at this time, so we thought it would make sense to provide a walkthrough specifically for cPanel.

From the application selection screen click "Backup". This will bring you to the backup application that allows you to generate and download complete backups for your site. Below that title should be a listing of every database that you have created. Simply click on the name of the database you want to backup and save it to your computer.

That's it! Before we talk about what they are, let's review the definition of aggregate, as it relates to MySQL:. Aggregate - Constituting or amounting to a whole; total. The most common types of aggregate functions let you find out things like the minimum, maximum and even the average of a "grouped" set of data. The trick to understanding aggregate functions is often understanding what kind of data is being grouped and analyzed.

Below is the SQL for our "products" table. You can download the products. Below is the MySQL table products. In this case we would be "grouping" by the product type and finding the minimum price of each group. Additionally, we want to use the type column as our group. For example, if you have a number of products of the same type, and you want to find out some statistical information like the minimum, maximum, or other top-level info, you would use GROUP BY.

Remember to group by the column you want information about and not the one you are applying the aggregate function on. In our above example we wanted information on the type column and the aggregate function was applied to the price column. If you missed the Aggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now, as it explains many concepts used in this lesson! Below is the MySQL table "products". The "products" table that is displayed above has several products of various types.

For a slight change of pace, let's count the name column to find how many products there are per type. There are 1 Food items. There are 3 Music items. There are 2 Toy items. If you haven't already read through Tizag's Aggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now. It explains concepts used in this lesson. Here's a visual of the "products" table. One use of SUM might be to find the total of all the items' price for each product type.

If you missed the Aggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now. The table we will be using is "products" and you can download the products. Our imaginary customers have been complaining recently that our prices are too high, so we would like to find out the average price of each product type to see if this is in fact the truth.

I think our imaginary customers should change their view and keep buying products from us. You can download the table used in this example, products. The products table that is displayed above has several products of various types.

One use of MIN might be to find out the cheapest item in each group. The column that will have the MIN function applied to it is, of course, price. If you missed theAggregate Introduction Lesson, please check it out now, as it explains many concepts used in this lesson! You can download the example the products.

We could use the MAX function to find the most expensive item for each type of product. We will also be applying the aggregate function to the price column. This lesson will teach you how to help prevent this from happening and help you secure your scripts and MySQL statements. Injection usually occurs when you ask a user for input, like their name, and instead of a name they give you a MySQL statement that you will unknowingly run on your database.

However, the injection attack has actually made our query behave differently than we intended. By using a single quote ' they have ended the string part of our MySQL query. More Serious SQL Injection Attacks Although the above example displayed a situation where an attacker could possibly get access to a lot of information they shouldn't have, the attacks can be a lot worse. Now that you know this is a problem, how can you prevent it?

Lets try out this function on our two previous injection attacks and see how it works. Now all these queries will do is try to find a username that is just completely ridiculous:. You have no excuse not to use it after reading this lesson! These date types are chosen for a column when you create a new table in MySQL. Often the most difficult part of using dates in MySQL is to be sure the format of the date you are trying to store matches the format of your table's date column.

If you haven't already, try to create a new MySQL table with the date types we mentioned above. We have assembled a "date playground" MySQL table that can be used to follow along with this lesson. Also, the following acronyms are used in this lesson:. Y - year segment. M - month segment. D - day segment. H - hour segment. Below is the proper format of a DATE.

Date Range: to If you try to enter a date in a format other than the Year-Month-Day format then it might work, but it won't be storing them as you expect. Date Range: to It should be noted that the range of years that can be stored are from to Below we have created another manual and automatic example to show off YEAR's use. All the date information, besides the year, is just ignored by YEAR.

Date Range: to The hyphen and the colon are the standard character to separate a date and time respectively, but MySQL allows for you to choose your own delimiters if you wish. Below we have purposely entered an erroneous date, manually, so you can see what happens when you enter a date that is outside the boundaries of a this type. When you enter dates that are out of the range or in the wrong format for a given date type, MySQL will often just enter in the default value of all zeros.

This lesson will just be covering the basics of using TIME. We have one already created if you want to use it: timeplayground. The Unit for Comparison and Sorting. Character Set Conversion. Lettercase Conversion. Trailing Space Handling in Comparisons. Trailing Space Handling for Inserts and Retrievals. Binary strings are sequences of bytes. For the binary collation, comparison and sorting are based on numeric byte values.

Nonbinary strings are sequences of characters, which might be multibyte. Collations for nonbinary strings define an ordering of the character values for comparison and sorting. When assigning column values to another column that has a different character set:. For binary string columns, no conversion occurs. For cases similar to those preceding, the string value is copied byte-wise. The concept of lettercase does not apply to bytes in a binary string.

To perform lettercase conversion, the string must first be converted to a nonbinary string using a character set appropriate for the data stored in the string:. The Unicode collations based on UCA 9. NO PAD collations treat trailing spaces as significant in comparisons, like any other character. For inserts, values shorter than N characters are extended with spaces. For retrievals, trailing spaces are removed. For inserts, values shorter than N bytes are extended with 0x00 bytes.

For retrievals, nothing is removed; a value of the declared length is always returned. Character Sets and Collations in General. Specifying Character Sets and Collations. Collation Naming Conventions. Server Character Set and Collation. Database Character Set and Collation.

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